Human bonding

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Human bonding

Post by mr.banker on Thu Mar 26, 2009 2:58 pm

Human bonding refers to the development of a close, interpersonal relationship between family members or friends.Bonding
is a mutual, interactive process, and is not the same as simple liking.

The term is from the 12th century, Middle English word band or band, which refers to something that binds, ties, or
restrains. In early usage, a bondman, bondwoman, or bondservant was a feudal serf that was obligated to work for his or
her lord without pay. In modern usage, a bondsman is a person who provides bonds or surety for someone.

Bonding typically refers to the process of attachment that develops between romantic partners, close friends, or parents
and children. This bond is characterized by emotions such as affection and trust. Any two people that spend time
together may form a bond.

Male bonding refers to the establishment of relationships between men through shared activities that often exclude
females. The term female bonding is less frequently used, but refers to the formation of close personal relationships
between women.

Pair bonding
The term, pair-bond originated in 1940 in reference to mated pairs of birds. It is a generic term signifying a monogamous or
relatively monogamous relationship in either humans or animals. The term is commonly used in sociobiology and
evolutionary psychology.[3] Pair-bonding, usually of a fairly short duration, occurs in a variety of primate species. Some
scientists speculate that prolonged bonds developed in humans along with increased sharing of food.
a couple sharing time together

Limerent bond
According to limerence theory, positioned in 1979 by psychologist Dorothy Tennov, a certain percentage of couples may go
through what is called a limerent reaction, in which one or both of the pair may experience a state of passion mixed with
continuous intrusive thinking, fear of rejection, and hope. Hence, with all human romantic relationships, one of three
varieties of bonds may form, defined over a set duration of time, in relation to the experience or non-experience of
limerence:

1. Affectional bond: define relationships in which neither partner is limerent.
2. Limerent-Nonlimerent bond: define relationships in which one partner is limerent.
3. Limerent-Limerent bond: define relationships in which both partners are limerent.

The constitution of these bonds may vary over the course of the relationship, in ways that may either increase or
decrease the intensity of the limerence. The basis and interesting characteristic of this delineation made by Tennov, is
that based on her research and interviews with over 500 people, all human bonded relationships can be divided into three
varieties being defined by the amount of limerence or non-limerence each partner contributes to the relationship.


Parental bonding
In 1958, British developmental psychologist John Bowlby published the ground-breaking paper "the Nature of the Child's Tie
to his Mother", in which the precursory concepts of "attachment theory" were developed. This included the development of
the concept of the affectional bond, sometimes referred to as the emotional bond, which is based on the universal
tendency for humans to attach, i.e. to seek closeness to another person and to feel secure when that person is present.
Attachment theory has some of its origins in the observation of and experiments with animals, but is also based on
observations of children who had missed typical experiences of adult care. Much of the early research on attachment in
humans was done by John Bowlby and his associates. Bowlby proposed that babies have an inbuilt need from birth to make
emotional attachments, i.e. bonds, because this increases the chances of survival by ensuring that they receive the care
they need.

Maternal bonding
Of all human bonds, the maternal bond is considered to be one of the strongest. The maternal bond begins to develop
during pregnancy; following pregnancy, the production of oxytocin during lactation increases parasympathetic activity,
thus reducing anxiety and theoretically fostering bonding. It is generally understood that maternal oxytocin circulation can
predispose some mammals to show caregiving behavior in response to young of their species.

Breastfeeding has been reported to foster the early post-partum maternal bond, via touch, response, and mutual gazing.
Extensive claims for the effect of breastfeeding were made in the 1930s by Margaret Ribble, a champion of "infant rights",
but were rejected on scientific grounds.[The claimed effect is not universal, and bottle-feeding mothers are generally
appropriately concerned with their babies. It is difficult to determine the extent of causality due to a number of
confounding variables, such as the varied reasons families choose different feeding methods. Many believe that early
bonding ideally increases response and sensitivity to the child's needs, bolstering the quality of the mother-baby
relationship – however, many exceptions can be found of highly successful mother-baby bonds, even though early
breastfeeding did not occur, such as with premature infants who may lack the necessary sucking strength to successfully
breastfeed.
Father playing with his young daughter - an activity that tends to strengthen the father-child bond.

Paternal bonding
In contrast to the maternal bond, paternal bonds tend to vary greatly over the span of a child’s development in terms of
both strength and stability. In fact, many children now grow up in fatherless households and do not experience a paternal
more influential in play-interactions as opposed to nurturance-interactions. Father-child bonds also tend to develop with
respect to topics such as political views or money, whereas mother-child bonds tend to develop in relation to topics such
as religious views or general outlooks on life.

In 2003, researcher from Northwestern University in Illinois found that progesterone, a hormone more usually associated
with pregnancy and maternal bonding, may also control the way men react towards their children. Specifically, they found
that a lack of progesterone reduced aggressive behaviour in male mice and stimulated them to act in a fatherly way
towards their offspring.





Human-animal bonding
The human-animal bond can be defined as a connection between people and animals, domestic or wild; be
it a cat as a pet or birds outside one’s window. Research into the nature and merit of the human animal bond began in the
late 1700s when, in York, England, the Society of Friends established the The Retreat to provide humane treatment for the
mentally ill. By having patients care for the many farm animals on the estate, society officials theorized that the
combination of animal contact plus productive work would facilitate the patients’ rehabilitation. In the 1870s in Paris, a
French surgeon had patients with neurological disorders ride horses. The patients were found to have improved their motor
control and balance and were less likely to suffer bouts of depression.

In the 19th century, in Bielefeld, Germany, epileptic patients were given the prescription to spend time each day taking
care of cats and dogs. The contact with the animals was found to reduce the occurrence of seizures. In 1980, a team of
scientists at the University of Pennsylvania found that human to animal contact was found to reduce the physiological
characteristics of stress; specifically, lowered levels of blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, anxiety, and tension
were all found to correlate positively with human pet bonding.

Historically, animals were domesticated for functional use; for example, dogs for herding and tracking, and cats for killing
that 60–80% of dogs sleep with their owners at night in the bedroom, either in or on the bed. Moreover, in the past the
majority of cats were kept outside (barn cats) whereas today most cats are kept indoors (housecats) and considered part
of the family. Presently, in the US, for example, 1.2 billion animals are kept as pets, primarily for bonding purposes.In
addition, as of 1995 there were over 30 research institutions looking into the potential benefits of the human animal bond.
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